What Effect Does Geography Have On Climate

What Effect Does Geography Have On Climate?

Climate is the average weather of an area over a long period of time. It is affected by a variety of factors, including geography. Geography is the study of the physical features of the earth’s surface and how they interact with other aspects of the environment. Geography has a major influence on climate, from local to global levels.

Global Climate

At a global level, geography plays a major role in climate. The shape of the Earth and its relationship to the sun affects temperature and precipitation. The tilt of the Earth’s axis and its orbit around the sun cause seasonal changes in climate. The Earth’s atmosphere also plays a role in climate by trapping heat and reflecting sunlight.

Regional Climate

At a regional level, geography affects climate by influencing air circulation and temperature. Mountain ranges can act as barriers to the movement of air and cause areas to be warmer or colder than they would otherwise be. Bodies of water can also affect climate by moderating temperatures and providing moisture to the atmosphere.

Local Climate

At a local level, geography affects climate by influencing the availability of sunlight, wind, and rain. Features such as hills, valleys, and bodies of water can cause local variations in temperature and precipitation. For example, windy areas may be cooler than nearby sheltered areas, and areas near bodies of water may experience more rainfall than areas farther away.


Geography has a major influence on climate at all levels, from global to local. By understanding how geography affects climate, we can better prepare for and mitigate the effects of climate change.